Exosomes

Exosome therapy is one of the latest treatments gaining attention from patients, doctors and researchers alike due its significant potential therapeutic effects in regenerative medicine and in the treatment of chronic disease. Although in the past few decades stem cells has been a major focus in the treatment of a myriad of diseases, exosomes have recently been recognized as the main component responsible for the therapeutic action of stem cells via their role in cell to cell communication.

Research has shown that cell to cell communication is critical for maintaining cellular health and plays important roles in many aspects of human health including development, immunity, homeostasis, and human disease such as neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, orthopedic conditions and more. Age, chronic disease, environmental factors, genetic disorders, and other factors can negatively affect the communication between cells. When the cellular communication is hindered the repair and regenerative processes are disrupted. This eventually results in dysregulation and loss of cellular function which is the root cause of most chronic diseases and aging.

Exosomes are the vehicles used by stem cells to carry and transfer messages between cells in the body. Due to their small size of 40-100 nanometers which is roughly one millionth the size of a human hair, exosomes are able to travel long distances in the body. These extraordinary tiny particles have the ability to promote health and longevity by transmitting regenerative signals that stimulate the repair of old, damaged, and or dysfunctional cells, and reestablish cellular behavior throughout the body. Exosomes also reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, modulate the immune system by regulating T cell and B cell function, and improve overall cellular health.

Exosomes are considered acellular, meaning they do not contain cells. They only contain signals from activated stem cells. As such there is no risk for graft-vs-host reactions since there is nothing “foreign” for our immune system to recognize and adversely react to.

Exosome therapy holds great promise in regenerative, anti-aging and longevity medicine as well as for the treatment of many chronic diseases. While we wait for more clinical trials, exosome therapy is being used successfully in clinics all over the country and the world.

For frequently asked questions about exosomes please click here.

Therapeutics effects of exosomes include:

  • Repair and regeneration
  • Anti-inflammation
  • Immune modulation
  • Anti-oxidation
  • Anti-fibrosis
  • Mitochondrial protection and support
  • Energy production; supports synthesis of ATP

Conditions that may be aided by exosomes include:

  • Musculoskeletal – joints, discs, muscles, bone, ligaments, tendons and cartilage
  • Neurodegenerative – Multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, ALS, etc
  • Skin – burns, scars, ulcers
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Liver disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Inflammatory bowel disease
  • Alopecia
  • Urology – Erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence
  • Cerebral palsy and Autism
  • Type II diabetes
  • Infertility
  • Aging

Conditions not appropriate for exosome therapy:

  • Cancer*
  • Myeloproliferative disease
  • Bone marrow dysplasia
  • Sickle cell anemia
  • Primary pulmonary hypertension
  • Acute bacterial infection
  • Recent dental work
  • Macular degeneration
  • Any condition with abnormal neovascularization
  • Immune-compromised patients

* Emerging research suggests that exosomes may be used as drug delivery vehicles in the treatment of cancer.

For additional information on exosomes and more details regarding these studies please visit our Frequently Asked Questions.

Selected Research Articles on Exosomes

  • Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles can safely ameliorate the progression of chronic kidney diseases. Nassar, W., El-Ansary, M., Sabry, D., Mostafa, M. A., Fayad, T., Kotb, E. Adel, H. (2016). Biomaterials Research, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40824-016-0068-0
  • Exosome Therapy for Stroke.Chen, J., & Chopp, M. (2018). Stroke, 49(5), 1083–1090. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.018292
  • Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: A novel potential therapeutic avenue for cardiac regeneration.Safari, S., Malekvandfard, F., Babashah, S., Alizadehasl, A., Sadeghizadeh, M., & Motavaf, M. (2016). Cellular and Molecular Biology (Noisy-Le-Grand, France), 62(7), 66–73. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27453275
  • Emerging Role of Stem Cells – Derived Exosomes as Valuable Tools for Cardiovascular Therapy.Rosca, A.-M., Rayia, D. M. A., & Tutuianu, R. (2017). Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(2), 134–138. https://doi.org/10.2174/1574888X10666151026115320
  • The potential of exosomes in the therapy of the cartilage and bone complications; emphasis on osteoarthritis.Pourakbari, R., Khodadadi, M., Aghebati-Maleki, A., Aghebati-Maleki, L., & Yousefi, M. (2019). Life Sciences, 116861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116861
  • Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles for treating joint injury and osteoarthritis. Li, J. J., Hosseini-Beheshti, E., Grau, G. E., Zreiqat, H., & Little, C. B. (2019, February 1). Nanomaterials, Vol. 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020261
  • Exosomes in ischemic heart disease: novel carriers for bioinformation. Zhou, H., Wang, B., Yang, Y., Jia, Q., Qi, Z., Zhang, A., … Zhang, J. (2019). Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 120, 109451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109451
  • Exosomes Isolated From Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Neuroinflammation and Reduce Amyloid-Beta Deposition by Modulating Microglial Activation in Alzheimer’s Disease.Ding, M., Shen, Y., Wang, P., Xie, Z., Xu, S., Zhu, Z., … Yang, H. (2018). Neurochemical Research, 43(11), 2165–2177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-018-2641-5
  • Tiny Shuttles for Information Transfer: Exosomes in Cardiac Health and Disease. Kishore, R., Garikipati, V. N. S., & Gumpert, A. (2016). Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 9(3), 169–175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12265-016-9682-4
  • Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles can safely ameliorate the progression of chronic kidney diseases.
    Nassar, W., El-Ansary, M., Sabry, D., Mostafa, M. A., Fayad, T., Kotb, E. Adel, H. (2016). Biomaterials Research, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40824-016-0068-0
  • Exosome Therapy for Stroke.
    Chen, J., & Chopp, M. (2018). Stroke, 49(5), 1083–1090. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.018292
  • Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: A novel potential therapeutic avenue for cardiac regeneration.
    Safari, S., Malekvandfard, F., Babashah, S., Alizadehasl, A., Sadeghizadeh, M., & Motavaf, M. (2016). Cellular and Molecular Biology (Noisy-Le-Grand, France), 62(7), 66–73. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27453275
  • Emerging Role of Stem Cells – Derived Exosomes as Valuable Tools for Cardiovascular Therapy.
    Rosca, A.-M., Rayia, D. M. A., & Tutuianu, R. (2017). Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(2), 134–138. https://doi.org/10.2174/1574888X10666151026115320
  • The potential of exosomes in the therapy of the cartilage and bone complications; emphasis on osteoarthritis.
    Pourakbari, R., Khodadadi, M., Aghebati-Maleki, A., Aghebati-Maleki, L., & Yousefi, M. (2019). Life Sciences, 116861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116861
  • Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles for treating joint injury and osteoarthritis.
    Li, J. J., Hosseini-Beheshti, E., Grau, G. E., Zreiqat, H., & Little, C. B. (2019, February 1). Nanomaterials, Vol. 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020261
  • Exosomes in ischemic heart disease: novel carriers for bioinformation.
    Zhou, H., Wang, B., Yang, Y., Jia, Q., Qi, Z., Zhang, A., … Zhang, J. (2019). Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 120, 109451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109451
  • Exosomes Isolated From Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Neuroinflammation and Reduce Amyloid-Beta Deposition by Modulating Microglial Activation in Alzheimer’s Disease.
    Ding, M., Shen, Y., Wang, P., Xie, Z., Xu, S., Zhu, Z., … Yang, H. (2018). Neurochemical Research, 43(11), 2165–2177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-018-2641-5
  • Tiny Shuttles for Information Transfer: Exosomes in Cardiac Health and Disease.
    Kishore, R., Garikipati, V. N. S., & Gumpert, A. (2016). Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 9(3), 169–175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12265-016-9682-4
  • Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles can safely ameliorate the progression of chronic kidney diseases. Nassar, W., El-Ansary, M., Sabry, D., Mostafa, M. A., Fayad, T., Kotb, E. Adel, H. (2016). Biomaterials Research, 20(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40824-016-0068-0
  • Exosome Therapy for Stroke.Chen, J., & Chopp, M. (2018). Stroke, 49(5), 1083–1090. https://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.018292
  • Mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes: A novel potential therapeutic avenue for cardiac regeneration.Safari, S., Malekvandfard, F., Babashah, S., Alizadehasl, A., Sadeghizadeh, M., & Motavaf, M. (2016). Cellular and Molecular Biology (Noisy-Le-Grand, France), 62(7), 66–73. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27453275
  • Emerging Role of Stem Cells – Derived Exosomes as Valuable Tools for Cardiovascular Therapy.Rosca, A.-M., Rayia, D. M. A., & Tutuianu, R. (2017). Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(2), 134–138. https://doi.org/10.2174/1574888X10666151026115320
  • The potential of exosomes in the therapy of the cartilage and bone complications; emphasis on osteoarthritis.Pourakbari, R., Khodadadi, M., Aghebati-Maleki, A., Aghebati-Maleki, L., & Yousefi, M. (2019). Life Sciences, 116861. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.116861
  • Stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles for treating joint injury and osteoarthritis. Li, J. J., Hosseini-Beheshti, E., Grau, G. E., Zreiqat, H., & Little, C. B. (2019, February 1). Nanomaterials, Vol. 9. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020261
  • Exosomes in ischemic heart disease: novel carriers for bioinformation. Zhou, H., Wang, B., Yang, Y., Jia, Q., Qi, Z., Zhang, A., … Zhang, J. (2019). Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, 120, 109451. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109451
  • Exosomes Isolated From Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells Alleviate Neuroinflammation and Reduce Amyloid-Beta Deposition by Modulating Microglial Activation in Alzheimer’s Disease.Ding, M., Shen, Y., Wang, P., Xie, Z., Xu, S., Zhu, Z., … Yang, H. (2018). Neurochemical Research, 43(11), 2165–2177. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-018-2641-5
  • Tiny Shuttles for Information Transfer: Exosomes in Cardiac Health and Disease. Kishore, R., Garikipati, V. N. S., & Gumpert, A. (2016). Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research, 9(3), 169–175. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12265-016-9682-4

Brought to you by:

Ahvie Herskowitz, MD, President of ACAM
Director of Anatara Medicine
Founder of San Francisco Stem Cell Treatment Center
Clinical Professor of Medicine at UC San Francisco (2014)
(Read Dr. Herskowitz’s Bio Here)

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